Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Progressive Era During The 1920 S - 973 Words

The progressive era during the 1890’s and 1920’s in the Unites States saw an economic expansion with the aid of the industrial capitalists, a growing population with immigrants coming to the United States seeking a better life through labor with American industrialization, and government corruption being eliminated progressively by political reforms like the Sherman Antitrust Act. This era also had complications such as racial tension between immigrants, poor working and living conditions amongst the American public, society division based on different characteristics such as ethnicity and average working revenue. As the works of Howard Zinn, Thomas C. Leonard, and David Montgomery specify the endeavor America as a society underwent during the Progressive Era. Through the economic expansion during the Progressive Era companies wanted to keep costs down while maintaining profits high with low wages, poor working conditions, and long hours at the expense of immigrants. Th e underrepresented individuals faced with these problematic issues consisted of blacks, whites, Chinese, Europeans, and female labors. Wages in America during the Progressive Era had been based on race, sex, and social class. Mary Stovall author of the article â€Å"The Chicago Defender† further expands on the issue of class favoritism by elaborating in his work how â€Å"blacks were charged higher rents than whites for comparable housing† . These problematic matters often caused a heated argument and in some instancesShow MoreRelatedThe Progressive Era During The 19th Century1195 Words   |  5 PagesThe Progressive Era was social activism and political reform between the 1890s and 1920s. The reformers of the Progressive Era tried to help the corrupt government, improve the not so great economic state for lower and middle class and immigrants, and invoke social change. The reformers were also very effective of making the problems of the 19th century known in America . 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In the early 1920’s, the United States experienced a period of immense reorganization of social and economical life; therefore, this post- World War I era became referred to as â€Å"The Roaring 20’s†, â€Å"The Jazz Age†Read MoreChapter 31 Essential Questions Essay1072 Words   |  5 Pagesand why did America turn toward domestic isolation and social conservatism in the 1920s? Americans turned toward domestic isolation and social conservatism in the 1920s because of the red scare. Many people used the red scare to break the backs of all struggling unions. Isolationist Americans had did not have a lot of hope in the 1920s. There began to be a large amount of immigrants flowing into the US. During 1920-1921, over 800,000 immigrants had come. This type of immigration was known as theRead MoreWomen, African Americans And Literature1747 Words   |  7 PagesWomen, African-Americans Literature in the Progressive Era One of the greatest turning points in American history was the Progressive era due to the advancements and social responses led by women and people of color. Many depictions of this era through secondary sources can be used to see the conflicts faced by the individuals of the time period and the political movement that ensued right after. Many favorable outcomes resulted from this time period including the start of reformation from womenRead MoreThe Progressive Era Of The United States994 Words   |  4 Pagesnation that is constantly susceptible to melancholy because things are not perfect.† During the 1880’s to the 1920’s this statement seemed to be true about America but this sadness was not seen from the outside. The Progressive Era brought out these issues and made everyone aware of them. This era was a period in the United States that consisted of social activism and political reforms. The importance of this era was the passing of labor laws, anti-trust law s, unionization for important industriesRead MoreWar I And World War II1264 Words   |  6 Pages During any war, there will alwaAys be alliances made which stick even after the war has been dissolved. Postwar foreign policy after wars such as World War I and World War II was complicated and both had their similarities and differences from each other. World War I (WWI) strengthened our international relations with many countries, It also deteriorated some relations as well and set the stage for America becoming a great power. World War II (WWII) had some of the same effects, solidating ourRead MoreThe Era Of 1915 After The Civil War1478 Words   |  6 PagesReconstruction Era, this was the time were America was described as free and a new nation. Although the abolishment of slavery raised the question of what freedom truly meant. Later, in the Progressive Era of 1915 freedom was identified politically and economically rather than identified by race. Having looked at freedom from both the Reconstruction Era and the Progressive Era, the Reconstruction Era expanded freedom and the Progressive Era restricted freedom. In the beginning of the Reconstruction Era AfricanRead MoreThe Progressive Era Of The Gilded Age1455 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the progressive era there were many reform movements due to the abundance of political, social, and economical corruption in America in the gilded age as seen by political machines like William Marcy tweed and American financiers like J.P. Morgan. Some of the many issues that made themselves present in the gilded age include the large wealth gap, child labor, women’s lack of rights, influx of immigrants, Urbanization, Indian wars, monopolists, political machines, and alcoholism. All of

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Nature And The Importance of The Operational Management

Questions: ScenarioFurniture Supplier company who provides finished good to leading furniture retailers are reviewing their management of operations and would like to investigate new ideas which can be implemented to improve efficiency and effectiveness of their business.Task 1Write a report focusing on operations functions, Strategic operation management, Organisation of operation process and planning and control in operation. This report should include, An explanation of why operations management is important for organisations Analyse the operations functions of a selected organisation Evaluation, by using a process model, of the operations management of a selected organisation An explanation of the three Es (economy, efficiency and effectiveness) An explanation of the tension between cost minimisation and quality maximisation Evaluation of the significance of the five performance objectives cost; dependability; flexibility; quality and speed that underpin operations management Task 2 Deve lop a set of process documents with explanation to assess and evaluate effective operations management at the furniture supplier company. Explain linear programming and evaluate critical path analysis and network planning Evaluate critical path analysis and network planning Explain the need for operational planning and control in producing a furniture Design and discuss possible layouts for producing furniture and clearly define operational outcomes. Produce a network plan and indicate the resultant critical path for any design process of the company Identify approaches can be used for project management and quality control in sales, stock or purchases process Answers: Introduction: Operation management is the majority concern for any organization not considering of its procedure as well as duration. At the same time this is also concerned regarding the scheming as well as conniving of the production process (AtwahAl-ma'aitah, 2013). In order to understand the operational management process in business context, a particular business scenario is considered here, where a restaurant chain is operating its business in London (Ahmed et al., 2014). To ensure their operational success, various context of operation management is considered too. So, this report provides information about the company background, resources, production process, its decision-making process, marketing strategy, management structure, financial analysis, restaurant marketing, etc to assess the success of its operation in location. The restaurant that is being highlighted in this report is Bread Street Kitchen that is located at the heart of the city of London in the United Kingdom. It is basically located at the bread street area and runs successfully. As the business is growing steadily and at a greater pace, the organizational management plans to review its operation process for sustainability aspect in the London city. The restaurant premises would be quite big, a total of 130 square feet. 1. Understanding the nature and the importance of the Operational Management Explanation on the importance of the Operations Management for Organization According toMeng (2012), operation management is all about harmonizing the internal as well as the external obtainable resources following a specific method that it look like capable to convince the organizational goals in the long run. In the contemporary time frame, majority of the organizations are intended to attain the effectiveness as well as efficiency inside their business procedure. As a consequence, the most important objective of the operation management is led to enhance the procedure that augment the organizational competence to make use of its resources for attaining the production effectiveness. So, it is true that operation management is the amalgamation of all the other subdivisions inside the organizational structure. Figure 1: Importance of Operational management (Ahmed et al., 2014) Analysis of Operations Functions of Bread Street Kitchen Any business to take a firm decision regarding any business venture, it needs to undergo a series of steps like firstly, problem recognition, secondly search process, thirdly evaluation of alternatives, selecting stage, and finally evaluation of decision. The organization mentioned here must initiate the process of decision making with the initial step of problem recognition where it needs to identify all the objectives and aims in the corporate context (Ahmed et al., 2014). For the Bread Street Kitchen, the problem lies in the fact that the organization aims to sustain itself in London through enhancing its operation process. For this, it needs to identify all requisites. The second process states that the search process needs to be conducted significantly. This step involves conducting a market research as well as gathering all related information. Information provides the basic foundation for organizational growth and success. Evaluation of alternatives includes identifying and th en trying out all alternatives to select the best opportunity. Once the best approach has been selected, it is implemented and evaluated. Effective monitoring is to be conducted to maintain the stable position. Evaluation of the Operations Management through process model Input: The Bread Street Kitchen restaurant would adopt a forma restaurant form, in which the major products to be provided include various types of continental foods, pizzas, burgers, sandwiches, and even beverages like tea, coffee, soft drinks and fruit juices (Qur'an, 2009). Conversion: The freezer, microwave, coffee machines, dishwasher, and all necessary electronic equipment would be sourced from Comet, whereby a business membership account is to be created. All catering equipment like plates, trays, spoons, forks, bowls, etc would be sourced from Makro, which sells various wholesale food items to different small or big businesses. All food ingredients that would be required in huge amount on a regular basis would be sourced from supermarkets, since they offer considerable discount for business owners. Not all food items would be prepared in house. Rather, to avoid any sort of delay or confusion, the organization would be preparing some of the food items that it specializes in and some other items like sandwiches, burgers, pizzas would be source from retailers that specialize in the very products (Ogbogu, 2013). This idea of buying food items from wholesalers on a regular basis would allow the organization to retain the maximum profits with itself by outsourcing t he harder part of the job and retaining the easier part to earn and retain maximum profits. All continental food items would be prepared by exotic chefs within its premises. Figure: The process Model Monitoring: As the restaurant is high rated and expensive the target customers belong to the higher class of the society. These are the potential customers (Ng, 2004). The location of the restaurant is on the roadside of an extremely busy street with several big companies and workmen around to visit the restaurant at any part of the day. Also, being one of the busiest roads of London, the location is ideal as several passers-by pass the street every day. An analysis showed that there are no such big restaurants or coffee shops in the vicinity around. So, one at the location would make it an ideal place for people to visit. Opportunity exists for such a restaurant to grow at the region, since not many restaurants are located at the specific area (AtwahAl-ma'aitah, 2013). Direct competition is quite low in the industry that is usually highly competitive. Some of the shops or cafeterias that are a bit distant to the location may impose a threat if the restaurant is not well maintained to attract cu stomers. Output: The overall services that the Bread Street Kitchen would provide would be hospitality services, whereby customers would be arriving and relax themselves with tasty food and refreshing drinks. Apart from wooden chairs there would be sofas arranged in a circular manner to add to the beauty of the restaurant interior (Coughlan, 2005). The atmosphere would be enhanced with music of all genres. 2. Understanding the link between Operation Management and Strategic Planning Three Es Explanation Economic: The economic aspect of operation management mainly revolves around how well the organization able to maintain its stand point in the market place in terms of providing less expensive but quality product. In this specific context, for Bread Street Kitchen, thus it is become very much essential aspect to provide less expensive foods with maintaining the quality aspect. Research about the income level of UK citizen, where 50 people is considered as the sample shows that the average income range of the UK citizens [40% of the total citizens] revolves around just above the 50,000 per month, which suggests that the target group of Bread Street Kitchen restaurants will be middle class people. The higher class people earning more than 80,000 and above 5, 00,000 are 10% hence the food products should be priced keeping in mind the income level of the mass population. Now, this helps the researcher to understand the income level and the purchasing power of the citizens. So, the prices of the f ood items need to be made in accordance to the purchasing power of the citizens. Efficiency: Efficiency is other important aspect of operation management, which explores how well the organization maintains its operation to fulfill the demand of its customer. Here, the efficiency of the Bread Street Kitchen can be measured in terms of how many times customers visits the restaurant. The survey showed around 50%of the customers opined they visit the restaurants twice in a month which means that the services of the restaurant are hugely availed in UK. Further, to measure the efficiency of the organization, the researcher tried to analyze the taste and choices preference of the customers and whether the organization capable to provide such kind of food items. In this specific, context, research showed that around 55% of the customers opined that they prefer non vegetarian meals with diverse opportunities for dishes provided by the Bread Street Kitchen. However only 10 % of the selected customer opined that they prefers vegetarian and organic meals provided by the Bread Street Kitchen. Hence this will help the management of the restaurant to understand the priority rate of the items and also will be able to price the items accordingly. Effective: Finally, the aspect effective in operation management is also playing similar role like other cases. In case of the Bread Street Kitchen, in order to measure the effectiveness following two questions were asked to selected customers: Q1] How much are you willing to spend for the type of food you like? Q2] Which of the following price package are you willing to opt for in restaurant? Below is the details answer of these two questions: For question 1: Options No of respondents Total respondents Response % 200 - 400 10 50 20% 500 - 700 30 50 60% 800 - 1000 5 50 10% More than 1000 5 50 10% Table: Willing to spend For question 2: Options No of respondents Total respondents Response % Single meals 12 50 24% Combo meals 18 50 35% Discounted meals 10 50 21% Meals with free items 10 50 20% Table: Package willing to opt On being asked about the price range of the food products in a restaurant the customers were of the opinion that around 60% of them will pay around 500 to 700. This shows that the customers prefer the low pricing strategy. The management of the restaurant should thus adopt a low pricing strategy so that they can capture the market initially and increase the price gradually. On the other hand, the second question shows the preference for the type of meals along with the price. Around 35 % of the customers prefer combo meals because they give value for money. 24 % prefers having single meals although the cost for same will be high and 21 % prefer having discounted meals which are present in the restaurants during happy hours or occasional offers. So, based on two above situation, it can be said that the organization is effective enough to sustain its operation in the London city in the long run. Explanation on the tension between the cost and quality maximization While sustainability of the operation of any particular business organization is taken for consideration, then it can be said that both cost and quality of service must be taken care of. Now, if the contemporary scenario of the UK is considered here, then it can be found that the UK restaurant industry is presently worth over 40 billion and around 90% of the customers engage themselves in the habit of eating out at any time of the day (Sandler, 2013). Over the years the majority growth percentage has been noticed in the pub restaurant sector with a growth rate of 80%. IN the recent years from 2013 the restaurants have started including s new health trend within their food items by introducing ingredients like beans, dark green vegetables, salmon, soya, walnuts, yoghurt, blueberries etc (Turner, 2012). Figure: Growth rate of different restaurants in UK (Source: Jamaluddin and Dickie, 2011, pp- 65) On the other hand, if the turnover of major business chain is considered here, then it can be found that in total, the top restaurant chains in UK accounts for around 7.3 billion revenue of the country. Wetherspoon being the first traditional pub chain is the second largest restaurant chain in UK to record high customer satisfaction level as well as high turnover (Miller, 2012). Figure: Turnover of the major restaurants in UK (Source: Maxwell et al. 2011, pp35) This clearly indicates that there exists a tension between cost and quality of the service in this specific market place. So, it becomes very much apparent that both cost as well as quality will be the key to attain success in long term operation for Bread Street Kitchen. Evaluation of the five performance objectives Cost: The costing strategy to be adopted by the Bread Street Kitchen would be based upon the entire strategy of the organization is to target higher, middle, and also low income earners as per the demographic distribution. The restaurant would aim at providing much affordable food and drinks. So, the products would not be priced too high that may deter customers. Also, it would not be priced too low that it may render the firm with loss. On account of the broad based generic product strategy that the firms aims to adopt, it would take up a value based pricing strategy, whereby the price of each item that is offered may be based upon how much the firm believes its customers in the region are ready to pay. The Bread Street Kitchen intended to adopt some of the most effective pricing tactics for all its ranges of products. Quality: Quality aspect is to be adopted for all its special food items and those that the restaurant excels in. These will be mostly based upon the product that is offered by market competition. Although the product of the Bread Street Kitchen restaurant would be bit cheaper, still much emphasis would be given to preparing and ordering food items of higher quality and taste. The strategy of cost-plus pricing would be adopted for all the products like sandwiches, cakes, pizzas, burgers that are sourced from external means (Ritter, 2006). The prices would be marked up for all those products, which will support to maintain the quality aspect. Finally, pricing of market orientation may be used for food items especially during lunch or dinner. The firm expects to attract a huge mass of customers and the policy of pricing all products effectively would enable its strategies. Dependability: As the firm engages in the hospitality services, it needs to be careful about the fact that everything has to be properly placed and the atmosphere of the restaurant has to be excessively soothing and comfortable. Since the business would be run as a sole trade, the firm would be headed by the owner in presence of the store manager. Speed: The store manager would be responsible for supervising that the entire store is working effectively to achieve its desired goals. For hospitality services towards customers, there would be ground staffs and waiters to assist in satisfying customers (Coughlan, 2005). Other management members would include supervisor or assistant who would enable procurement of supplies as well as running of the shop. Flexibility: There would a staff supervisor who would be guiding all staffs to offer better services to the customers. Store assistants will be appointed to act as the main contact point for the customers. They would be responsible for receiving orders as well as to attend all needs of the customers. 3. Understanding on how to organize a typical production process Explanation on Linear Programming Use of linear programming supports the business organization to maximize the revenue of the operation in terms of minimizing the expenses. This particular technique is employed mainly because of the fact that it supports the business to consider all the constraints of operation. Within the specific limitation, how much production will efficient enough to attain maximum revenue can be measured through this technique. Critical Path analysis and Network Planning Network planning helps to reduce the complexity of task. In this study, implementation of TQM within the existing supply chain system of the furniture company, network diagram will give the time of the project which will help in scheduling of the project. Below are the details of the network plan for the selected business organization. Figure 3: Gantt chart (Source: Created by author) Network diagram: Activity Description of activity Duration of activity 1-2 Formation of team 4 months 1-3 Surveys for market research 12 months 3-4 Market research results analysis 5 months 2-4 Investment for expansion in London 13 months 3-5 Plan implementation 15 months 4-5 Project completion 3 months Table 1: network diagram table (Source: created by author) Figure 4: network diagram (Source: Created by author) Explanation on the need for operational planning and control From the above discussion, it can be concluded that despite some of the available threats for the firm in the market, there are several scopes for the company to result in increased profitability and sustainability. Direct competition is quite low in the industry that is usually highly competitive. Some of the shops or cafeterias that are a bit distant to the location may impose a threat if the restaurant is not well maintained to attract customers. What is mostly needed is proper planning and control of operational activities. The overall services that the Bread Street Kitchen would provide would be hospitality services, whereby customers would be arriving and relax themselves with tasty food and refreshing drinks. 4. Relevant techniques to the production of an operational plan for organization Operational outcomes for the selected restaurant It is noted that being a representative of the hospitality industry, the organization needs to set in motion with pre-assessment of its procedure to provide service towards the customer, followed by the supplier evaluation as well as the operational outcomes assessment. Below are the essential operational outcomes for the selected business organization: Operational planning Conversions Expected benefit Forecasting demand The demand for the particular food is forecasted by the company as well as assesses the demand of the product and accordingly orders the raw material for the food. High Assemble stock Assembling the stock such as groceries, freezer, microwave, coffee machines, dishwasher, and all necessary electronic equipment, etc low Shorting Here, all the necessary raw materials like groceries will be shorted. Low Monitoring and using adhesive and various other materials Freezer, microwave, coffee machines, dishwasher, and all necessary electronic equipment, etc are to be well monitored. High Checking the quality Quality controller check the quality by assessing the test, freshness, organic foods, hygiene factors (Trietsch and Baker, 2012). High Inventory The raw materials like groceries are to be well maintained so that no raw materials stayed long time in the inventory, as this will lead to damage of raw materials. Low Supply to customer Here, all the prepared food will be served towards the customer according to their order. Medium Network plan and critical path analysis Considering the above mentioned network diagram, it is noted that the total completion period is 28 months. Further, 1, 2, 4 and 5 will be the critical activity here. Quality management techniques: There are several aspects that can be utilized to enhance the quality aspect of service provide by Bread Street Kitchen. Taken for example, selection of just in time (JIT) approach will reduce the damages of raw materials as well as finished food products. On the other hand total quality management (TQM) or implementation of ERP system will support to enhance overall success of the operation. Reference list Adair, J. (2010).Decision making and problem solving strategies. London: Kogan Page. Biddle, J. and Emmett, R. (2011).Research in the history of economic thought and methodology. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald. Birt, J. (2012).Accounting. Milton, Qld.: John Wiley and Sons Australia. Black, K. (2010).Business statistics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Brannen, J. (2009) Prologue, mixed methods for novice researchers: reflections and themes, International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 3(1), pp. 812. Bruning, P. (2013). Improving Ethical Decision Making in Health Care Leadership.BEJ, 04(02). Chen, L. (2014). A novel framework for customer-driven service strategies: A case study of a restaurant chain.Tourism Management, 41, pp.119-128. Corstjens, M. and Lal, R. (2008) Building store loyalty through store brands. Journal of Marketing Research, pp. 37 281-291. Ehrgott, M. (2010).Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems. Berlin: Springer. Epstein, L. (2012).The business owner's guide to reading and understanding financial statements(1st ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Flick, U. (2011).Introducing research methodology. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Guivarch, C. and Hallegatte, S. (2013). 2C or not 2C?.Global Environmental Change, 23(1), pp.179-192. Gummesson, E. (2009) Relationship marketing: It all happens here and now! Marketing Theory, 3(1), pp. 167-169 Hllgren, M. (2012). The construction of research questions in project management.International Journal of Project Management, 30(7), pp.804-816. Ho, C. (2010) Crisis decision making. 1st ed. New York: Nova Science Publishers. Jain, L. and Chee, P. (2010).Handbook on decision making. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Jamaluddin, A. and Dickie, C. (2011). Decision-making Related to Business Growth: Malay Small Businesses in Selangor.IJBM, 6(10). Kim, G. (2014). Applying Service Profit Chain model to the Korean restaurant industry.International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36, pp.1-13. Lewis, D. (2013). DECISION MAKING IN COMPLEX SITUATIONS.Business Strategy Review, 24(4), pp.37-40. Maxwell, A., Jeffrey, S. and Lvesque, M. (2011). Business angel early stage decision making.Journal of Business Venturing, 26(2), pp.212-225. Meng, X. (2012). 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Thursday, April 16, 2020

To Live Essays - To Live, The Doctor, Doctor Who, Twelfth Doctor

To Live All the time people face problems during there life. Most of the time the problems that people come across are very minimal and can be dealt with very easily and quickly. People do not appreciate what they have. When your parent packs your lunch and you are disappointed with what you receive, think about the people in other countries where they would eat anything that is edible. Constantly people all over the world die of famine but we are trapped in a fantasy world where none of this happens. Think twice when you throw away your food. One country where people's problems are a lot more serious is in China. Until the Civil War the Chinese were very rich. They lived in mansions and had servants. They were so rich that when they wanted to go somewhere they could hope on a person's back and they would carry them there. The main character in the movie, Fugui Xu, a young Chinese man gambled very frequently. He gambled a lot and had no luck winning. He lost so much gambling he was forced to hand over his mansion. He was then force to live like a common folk. They were very used to living the high life and because of that it was very difficult for them to survive living as a common folk. They had to get new jobs that were a lot less paying. Fugui's new job was to play shadow puppets and his wife's job was providing water for the community. Fortunately Fugui's family did perfectly fine with the money they earned. I will show you how Fugui and his family went from having a privileged past to having to affiliate with the communists to stay alive. Later on Fugui was forced to join the Nationalist army and once again he was forced to leave everything behind. He had to live through the frigid Chinese winter. Much of the army froze to death but fortunately Fugui and his friends survived by recovering the frozen people's coats. He was one of the lucky ones. He fought in many harsh conditions such as the Civil War. He was still able to stay alive by scavenging off the dead people's body to get adequate clothing, which was a very smart thing to do. He had to be very creative to not be drafted into the communist army. Most likely who would have been sent into prison, but to get out of that situation he entertained the communist army by performing shadow puppets. When he returned he was reunited with his family which he did not see for much time. The Great Leap Forward was also occurring at the same time. Fugui's family was barely holding on with their very low paying job, which was delivering water to the community. It was very hard for his family to survive without him and his money but they did it. Fugui daughter learned to help and contribute to the family by delivering water. When Fugui returned he learned that his daughter had an accident and became mute and partially deaf. Living in a community was hard for them because they had to deal with there surrounding neighbors. One day Youqing, Fugui's son, defended his sister by defending her from bullies shooting rocks at her. The whole family learned to trust and respect eachother. Part of the Great Leap was making steal and because of this everybody needed to hand over anything that was made of metal. Fugui's family needed to give away there pots and pans which now made it even harder to g ive the water to the community. Another tough time for Fugui's family was the Cultural Revolution. The community, in which Fugui and his family lived in, smelted steel around the clock. They needed to work extra hard because the district chief was coming in. The community wanted to make a good impression on the district chief so they made the kids word at school. Everybody was very tired from working long hours including Youqing. This small child slept behind a wall in deep sleep not aware of what was going around him. The district chief finally came in. He was also very

Friday, March 13, 2020

There are no moral absolutes Essays

There are no moral absolutes Essays There are no moral absolutes Paper There are no moral absolutes Paper Moral absolutism is the view that morale standards are unchanging and universal. On the opposite side of the spectrum there is a relativist approach. Relativists believe that moral claims are true or false depending on the moral standpoint. These opposing viewpoints can bring about great societal and political debates even in the modern days. Recent examples include the attempt to legalise euthanasia in the UK and the protest to get rid of abortion laws in the Republic of Ireland. Both of these situations are trying to legalise specific forms of murder. An absolutist in this situation will argue that all killing is wrong therefore current laws are right, whereas a relativist would look at specific standpoints, such as quality of life for euthanasia. In this essay I will attempt to explore both sides of the argument coming to my conclusion that relativism is a superior standpoint and that there are no moral absolutes. Some absolutist people disagree with the above statement about moral absolutes. This is because absolutism is a deontological argument which judges the morality of an action based on the actions appliance to rules. For Christians these rules might link back to the Ten Commandments. One of which is â€Å"thou shalt not murder†, this clearly and undeniably is an unbreakable law in the eyes of an absolutist. Another argument for their being moral absolute is that of a criticism to relativist acts. By Relativist thinking it is quite easy to come to the conclusion that slavery was a perfectly moral thing to do. To an absolutist, slavery did not become immoral when it was abolished, it was simply always immoral and being imposed by immoral governments. Per Contra the relativist approach has been backed by many a philosopher including the famous Empiricist, John Locke. Locke believed that absolutes were an abomination from his religious standpoint. He believed this because Absolutism subjected people to abide by absolute rules set by other people at some point. This goes against his belief that all people were created equal by God. By enforcing Absolutism we raise our rule imposing leaders to a God like Status of which no man should be. Furthermore this goes against the fist commandment that men should serve God alone; if we serve a ruler we can then not worship God. Another argument for Relativism is that absolutist moral standards, in some circumstances can lead onto extreme evils. The famous example that illustrates this is that of a crazed axe-murderer coming to your front door and asking you where your children are. Now a relativist could lie based on the circumstances thus saving his children whereas an absolutist must tell the murderer where the children are with full knowledge that they will be killed, thus allowing an even greater evil to be committed, they could even be called an accessory to the murder of their own children. Furthermore there cannot be moral absolutes as eventually they will contradict each other. For example, Jewish doctors in the Holocaust performed abortions to prevent women from being sent to the gas chambers. Two rules here are conflicting. One of which is that Doctors should not perform abortions and another that Doctors should try and save lives. Either way from an absolutist standpoint the doctor will be doing the wrong thing, but a relativist approach allows us to overlook this. On the other hand, there may have to be moral absolutes, because if everything is relativists then how do we decide what rules to abide by. If two tribes cross paths on a Sunday and one of which believes that a sacrifice should be made on Sunday whereas the other tribe does not, if the first tribe then sacrifices a member of the other tribe, it that then morally right or wrong. A relativist would say that it is right for the first tribe but wrong for the second. But how can society work based on right for me, wrong for you system without falling into moral conflict and chaos. Moreover, some relativist arguments when further analysed have absolutist roots, proving there are moral absolutes. For example, the Eskimo practice of leaving female infants out to die as so future male hunters could thrive appeared to be a significant disagreement between their moral systems and ours therefore seeming to deny the universal approach of Absolutism. But when dug deeper, given the hardships of the Eskimos to survive and limited resources for survival, keeping every child puts the whole family at risk. So there is actually a fundamental moral value of preserving life that we share with the Eskimos. The only difference being that they have to make choices based on what they value most (future hunters), these choices we do not have to face. This said the Eskimo example is also a benefactor the relativist approach of situation ethics. Joseph Fletcher, founder of situation ethics argued that in certain situations, absolutist principle have to be put to one side in order to do the right thing. He believed that absolutism didn’t lead to the best of most loving outcome, and the best thing to do may be to break a rule. Utilitarian also reject moral absolutes and focus more on consequences. They believe that the right action is the one that brings the most pleasure and the least pain. Sometimes this may admit Killing in order to save more lives. For Jeremy Bentham, there was no rule he would not break in order to bring about greater happiness. In short if there are no moral absolutes we are left with a Relativist state of mind. This is the belief that moral reasoning is a matter of taste and opinion and is subjective and relative to time and culture. Leading to conclusions such as the killing of Eskimo girls to be morally correct and the act of abortion by a World War 2 doctor also to be moral. Whereas if there are moral absolutes than the same moral rules are applicable all across the world and throughout history. These rules may be some form of innate knowledge or come from the divinity of God and do not change as opinion does. Meaning that if slavery comes back into fashion and is agreed upon to be good, it does not make it morale. In conclusion, I hold a relativist point of view because different cultures have to adapt to live in their surroundings. Extreme measures are often taken for survival which to us in western society would seem abhorrent; however it is for the greater good of future generations. I very much believe that ends justify the means therefore making me a Consequentialist even if rules such as absolutist murder have to be broken. Finally morale absolutes can also seem cruel, for example branding Euthanasia as murder makes people live their final days in unimaginable pain, whereas a relativist approach could give people a dignified end to their life, is that not moral.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Audit and Assurance Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Audit and Assurance - Assignment Example This assumption helps the organizations to be able to adequately finance its liabilities, realize its assets and seek refinancing if necessary. It is the duty of management to establish whether a business is a going concern, thus an auditor has to consider this implication on every audit they perform (Messier, Glover & Prawitt, 2008). The role of the auditor is segmented by giving reliable information on the performance of the business. An auditor has to review management assessment and the risks of material misstatements which touch on the business. An auditor is mandated with the task of assessing management opinions on the business as a going concern. It is this information which will add up to the data to be used by the auditor. Further, the auditor has to seek a written report regarding the future plans of the business from a management perspective. The auditor is required to review the information used by the clients who are basically the business management organs in establishing whether the going concern basis is appropriate. The financial statements offer a reference point of liquidity risk and going concern aspects. In cases of material uncertainty the auditor will be compelled to take a stand and make a decision. The auditor will make unqualified opinion if material uncertainty exists in the financial records. However, where the doubt has not been pinpointed in the financial statements the auditor will give a qualified opinion with a concrete explanation on the same (Messier, Glover & Prawitt, 2008). Auditors in trying to assess the operation ability of the entities need to take into perspective, this factor among other numerous factors to forecast and feed management with the right information to support going concern approach of the business. Periodicity is one of the key factors which need to be perceived by both management and the auditors in coming up with quantifiable clarifications. For instance, ISA 570 adopts a framework which

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Political Scenarios in World War II Japan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Political Scenarios in World War II Japan - Essay Example For the first six months the Japanese advance was virtually invincible: Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore, Java and the Indies, the Philippines, Burma and the Andaman Islands, New Britain and the Solomons all fell to Japanese arms. However, a grave miscalculation of the spirit and resources of the nation's principal enemies had been committed by the Japanese leaders. Allied submarines, US island-hopping strategy and superior fire-power led to a reversal of Japan's position. From mid-1944 the fate turned against Japan. By mid-1945 military collapse was about to happen. When the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the summer of 1945, a complete collapse of the empire and surrender ensued. A military occupation, chiefly by US forces, lasted from 1945 to 1952. In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution under US direction, renouncing war, granting basic human rights, and declaring Japan a democracy (O'Brien, 2000). US General Douglas MacArthur represented all the Allies in Japan after its defeat, but the occupation was nevertheless an almost exclusively US undertaking and to a very great extent MacArthur took his own decisions, without direct reference to Washington. He rejected the view that the Japanese would be better off without the age-old institution of the monarchy.